Выдержка из текста работы
- I (to play) tennis every weekend.
- She (to go) to the cinema with us after work.
- He (not to speak) English.
- I (to lose) my keys yesterday.
- I (not to see) her in the morning.
- I (to meet) her two days ago.
- Yesterday she (to buy) some new clothes.
- I (to give) her some chocolate when I met her.
- Last night I (to sleep) at a friend’s house.
- He (not to feel) very well yesterday.
- She (to read) a lot when she was a child.
- They (to talk) to us tomorrow.
- Next Sunday they (to go) to the park.
- My mother (to come) to see us next summer.
- Vegetarians are people who (not eat) meat
Упражнение № 2. Поставьте глаголы в отрицательной и вопросительной форме
пример: My sister went to Spain last summer.
My sister did not go to Spain last summer.
Did my sister go to Spain last summer.
- I have breakfast at eight o’clock.
- Alice came back from America last month.
- I watch TV every day.
- Peter is very good at tennis.
- She will join us, but not today.
- They will see each other tomorrow.
Упражнение № 3. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным членам предложения.
пример: I play bridge on Sunday.
When do you play bridge?
- We have some friends to lunch every Sunday.
- My aunt comes to Moscow very often.
- She spent last summer in France.
- Simon always does his Maths homework.
- Tim usually goes to school by taxi.
- Torn and James are often very busy on Mondays.
- She will go to the cinema with us if she is free.
Упражнение 4. Найдите в колонке “В” продолжение предложений из колонки “А”. Напишите составленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык.
Упражнение 5. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.
Не usually helps his father with his farm work.
- The wedding ceremony was performed in the church.
- She wore a large straw hat.
- I forgot to send him a birthday card.
Упражнение 6. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
Bad News Can Be Better Than Nothing
No one likes bad news, but for some people, no news is worse. People who are mildly neurotic are stressed by uncertainty even more than by bad news, a new study finds. Psychologists have long known that bad news grabs attention, making its recipients take notice, while good news often is given short shrift in the brain. Scientists have explained the phenomenon as a survival mechanism, a part of the brain’s wiring adapted to warn of dangers or threats.
- But researchers at the University of Toronto wanted to learn more about how people respond to uncertainty — a lack of information or information that isn’t well understood. Forty-one young men and women took a test designed to assess how neurotic they were, then were fitted with electrode caps that measured brain activity as they completed certain tasks. As a way of monitoring stress, the investigators tracked neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, a part of the brain involved in conflict, uncertainty and monitoring errors.
- The participants later were asked to respond when they thought a second had passed since a symbol had appeared on a computer monitor. After responding, they received feedback on the monitor in the form of a plus sign indicating a job well done, a minus sign indicating improvement was needed, or a question mark with no further explanation. The subjects who had scored higher on the neuroticism scale demonstrated more brain activity in response to uncertain feedback than to negative feedback, the researchers found.
- In the real world, such a heightened response might occur when an employee is up for a promotion but does not know the outcome, said Jacob B. Hirsh, a graduate student in psychology at the University of Toronto and an author of the paper. A highly neurotic individual would respond less intensely to losing the promotion, Mr. Hirsh said.
- The opposite is true for people who are not neurotic, Mr. Hirsh added. They are not bothered by uncertainty but are very upset by negative feedback.
- Richard Sorrentino, a psychologist at the University of Western Ontario who also studies uncertainty, said he had conducted a similar study looking at married women who were ambivalent toward their partners and not sure whether they could be trusted.
- “If they were the type who preferred certainty, they were better off if they didn’t trust their husbands at all than if they were uncertain about whether to trust him,” he said. Wives who preferred certainty but who were uncertain about their husbands often suffered severe symptoms, he added, including depression.
- “Basically the motto of the highly neurotic person is, ʽBetter the devil you know than the devil you don’t,’ ” Mr. Hirsch said.
Упражнение 7. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы.
What kind of people is worried about the absence of news?
- How do psychologists call the phenomenon connected with receiving news?
- What part of the brain is involved in conflict and uncertainty?
- What did the researchers find after the experiment?
- How might an employee respond in case of “no news” and “bad news”?
Упражнение 8. Прочитайте текст ещё раз. Согласитесь или опровергните данные утверждения согласно тексту, используя слова (true/false).
- People do not pay much attention to bad news.
- The participants had to respond when they thought a second had passed since a symbol had appeared on a computer monitor.
- Mildly neurotic people are not bothered by uncertainty but are very upset by negative feedback.
- Married women preferring certainty were happier if they didn’t trust their husbands at all.
- The motto of the highly neurotic people is ’Better the devil you don’t know than the devil you know.’
Упражнение 9. Сопоставьте начало предложения (A – E) с окончанием (1-5):
A. People who are mildly neurotic are stressed by
B. Scientists have explained the phenomenon as a survival mechanism,
C. Forty-one young men and women took a test designed to assess
D. The subjects who had scored higher on the neuroticism scale demonstrated
E. People who are not neurotic are not bothered
1. how neurotic they were.
2. more brain activity in response to uncertain feedback than to negative feedback, the researchers found.
3. uncertainty even more than by bad news, a new study finds.
4. by uncertainty but are very upset by negative feedback.
5. a part of the brain’s wiring adapted to warn of dangers or threats.
Упражнение 10. Переведите
A Brief History of Psychology
In a sense the history of psychology goes back to ancient times when people began to ask questions about human nature and tried to explain human behaviour.
The early Greek and Roman philosophers wondered what the mind and where it was located. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) introduced the concept of the mind as a tabula rasa (blank slate) that was empty until it was «written upon» by experience.
Nineteen centuries later the British philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) adopted this term to express his agreement with this view of the human mind. An opposing view was held by the French philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650), who believed that we are born with certain ideas and abilities.
Descartes also maintained that the mind and the body are separated but have a great deal of influence over each other.
These theoretical attacks into the nature of human beings were not true psychology. They expressed opinions rather than the results of scientific investigations.
Psychology as a science is little more than 100 years old.
Psychological issues are controversial mostly because of basic differences in the way different psychologists see the nature of human beings. Many of these controversies were born in the very early days of psychology, with the emergence in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries of a number of different schools-groups of psychologists who shared a theoretical outlook. As these schools successfully developed and then often declined, the history of psychology was written.